Bacopa Monnieri, also called Brahmi, belongs to the Scrophulariaceae family of plants which can be majorly found in wet, damp, and marshy tropical areas. The main place of its occurrence is India, but it can also be found in Nepal, China, Vietnam and Sri Lanka, as well as in Florida (USA), Europe, Africa and Australia. Brahmi is a very important herb used for centuries in Ayurveda, traditional Indian medicine. It provides adaptogenic benefits and it is also said to have positive effects on the brain. Bacopa has three main active chemical compounds, which are Bacosides A, B and C. The active compound Bacosides A in Bacopa easily cross the blood-brain barrier. Studies show that Brahmi and their main compounds are able to improve the signaling of electrical impulses between neurons in the human brain. It is also an adaptogen – it acts as a tonic. Brahmi contains a variety of extraordinary nutrients. The plant is rich in vitamins A, B, E, K and provides high amounts of magnesium, sodium, potassium, manganese, copper and zinc.
Choline is an essential nutrient found in many foods. It used to be called a vitamin, named Vitamin B4 (like adenine). Now, it is officially listed as a “vitamin-like substance”. The brain and nervous system use it to regulate functions and it is also needed to create membranes that surround the body’s cells. Although the body produces choline in the liver, most of the choline it needs comes from the provided food. CDP-Choline occurs naturally in the human brain, known also as Citicoline, and is able to cross the blood-brain barrier very easily. Although CDP choline has a low choline content (18%), it is an excellent source of choline. It also occurs naturally in the body and it is one of the best available sources of Choline, which plays a precursor compound role in the synthesis of Acetylcholine, which carries nerve impulses across synapses between nerve cells. CDP-Choline sets free as well such neurotransmitters like Norepinephrine, Dopamine and Serotonin in the brain. CDP-Choline affects the level of ATP, a complex organic chemical compound that provides energy to empower, fuel and drive many processes in living brain cells. ATP propagates the nerve impulses as well.
Lion’s Mane Mushroom is a fungus that occurs mainly in deciduous forests, where it grows on the lower parts of older trees such as oak, beech, apple or walnut. Due to its imposing appearance, the Lion’s Mane Mushroom is also known as the Bearded Tooth Mushroom or Monkey Head Mushroom. Its Japanese name ”Yamabushitake” also reflects its exotic appearance. This fungus has been used for hundreds of years by herbalists of Chinese medicine. The delicious white fruit body, reminiscent of a seafood taste, has long been known in traditional Chinese medicine as a power mushroom. Lion’s Mane Mushroom is classified as a plant with present active compounds, mainly Erinacines and Hericenones. Like other power mushrooms, the lion’s mane contains a lot of minerals and trace elements, including iron, magnesium, potassium, zinc, selenium and phosphorus. The Lion’s Mane Mushroom is rich in all essential amino acids as well as polysaccharides and polypeptides.
L-Carnitine is an amino acid belonging to the group of pseudo vitamins and is classified as a vitamin-like substance. It occurs in the mitochondria of the human body. The name carnitine comes from the Latin from the word “caro, carnis”, which means meat, because the largest amounts (almost 90% of all storage) are found in the muscles – both skeletal and in the heart muscle. The remaining 10% can be found in the kidneys, brain and other organs. L-Carnitine is an important component of the daily diet. The human body derives the main L-carnitine resources from the food that we provide it daily. Food sources of carnitine are mainly meat, dairy products and yeast. Carnitine in the body is responsible for transporting fatty acids to the mitochondria, where they are then converted into energy. It also participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates and some branched-chain amino acids. L-Carnitine occurs naturally in the cells of the kidney and liver of the human body, and is transported by blood to the circulatory system and into tissues, among others into brain tissue. L-Carnitine increases metabolism in tissues by transporting fatty acids into mitochondria, energizing and fueling the entire body. It also affects the level of Acetylcholine in the brain, by creating this chemical compound that is responsible for neurotransmissions.
Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a compound from the phospholipid group found in cell membranes. In the human body, its concentration has its highest level in the nervous tissue; more specifically, in the cells of the CNS – Central Nervous System. Currently, Phosphatidylserine is most often obtained from soybean and sunflower Lecithin. PS is part of the creation of mitochondria, which are the energy core of each brain tissue cell.
Gotu Kola has been used for medicinal purposes for over 3000 years in Ayurveda medicine as a natural remedy for memory and enhancing the ability to concentrate. It occurs widely throughout Central Asia and in some areas of Africa. The countries of origin are considered to be China, India and Indonesia. Gotu Kola is classified as an adaptogenic agent. Gotu Kola is a rich source of active substances such as Asianoside, Bramoside, Braminozide, Centelloside, Madecassoside, Tananuinide, and Scephophosphate. Gotu Kola causes an increase in the activity of Choline Acetyltransferase, an enzyme that catalyzes the Acetylcholine synthesis reaction. Increasing the activity of this enzyme, while delivering the right dose of Choline to the body, significantly increases the level of the Acetylcholine neurotransmitter.
Ashwagandha is one of the most popular and powerful medicinal plants used for thousands of years in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. The place of its natural occurrence are areas belonging to Asia. Ashwagandha is described as a mood stabilizer and is often compared to Chinese Ginseng, thanks to the similarities to this herb. It is also an adaptogen, and is therefore considered in Ayurvedic medicine as a tonic that strengthens the vitality that improves brain function and facilitates the adaptation of the organism. The compounds found in Ashwagandha are Witanolides and Glycovanitomides. Active compounds contained in Ashwgandha trigger the creation of Serotonin and stimulate GABA system receptors. Ashwagandha exhibits a similar pattern of action as alcohol does, which also stimulates GABA receptors. Its use, however, does not involve any side effects. Vitanolides contained in Ashwaganda also affects the inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down a neurotransmitter called Acetylcholine.
Green tea is made from the leaves of the tea plant (Camelia sinensis var. Sinensis) and is a popular drink, especially in Asia and Africa. Green tea contains a variety of different ingredients, including amino acids (L-theanine, L-tryptophan, L-lysine), fatty acids (linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid), vitamins (B, C and E), xanthines (caffeine and theophylline), minerals and microelements (including calcium, magnesium, iron, selenium, zinc and manganese). The four polyphenol compounds (EGCG, EGC, ECG and EC) are among the most important active substances in green tea. L-Theanine is one of the most biologically active substances contained in green tea, and is also found in the mushroom Xerocomus Badius. The compound structure of L-Theanine has a lot of similarities to the two neurotransmitters L-Glutamate and L-Glutamine and can easily cross the blood-brain barrier.
Korean Red Panax Ginseng (Panax Ginseng Meyer, Araliaceae, KRG) is a plant that has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine as a panacea and has the effects of stabilizing and balancing the entire physiology of the human body. The main biologically active substances in Korean Red Panax Ginseng are mainly Ginsenosides, also called Panaxosides, which play major role in modulating the effect of neurotransmission. KRG is one of the adaptogens – plants which have a multidirectional, positive effect on the body, helping to adapt to current needs. The compounds found in Korean Red Panax Ginseng can contribute to receptor’s modulation of Serotonin, Glutamate, Acetylcholine and GABA transmitters.
Ginkgo Biloba, commonly known as Ginkgo or Gingko, is the only living species in the division of Ginkgophyta, which is widely cultivated. Ginkgo has its origins in the southwestern part of Asia, which has various uses in traditional medicine and as a source of food. It is a popular medicinal plant which is mostly native to China. It has been used in these areas for over 4,000 years in traditional Chinese medicine. As a traditional natural remedy, the extract from the leaves, but also partly the seeds, have been used for centuries. The main class of compounds present in Ginkgo Biloba leaves are Flavonoids. This group includes mainly Flavones and Flavonols. Another group of bioactive compounds are Terpenoids and Triterpenes in the Ginkgo Biloba leaf. While its leaves and seeds have been used extensively in the past for many medical and nutritional purposes, present applications focus primarily on the ginkgo extract made from the leaves. The Ginkgo biloba tree leaf is associated with a variety of nutrition and supplementation applications, most of which focus on cognitive functions and brain boosting.
Roseroot (Rhodiola Rosea) occurs widely in the areas of northern and central Asia, as well as in the mountain regions of Europe. Although Rhodiola Rosea is little known as a medicinal plant, it is mainly used in traditional European medicine for over three thousand years as a tonic. It is one of the most important plants with adaptogenic activity. Characteristic compounds are Phenylpropanoids, and these substances are collectively known as Rosavins, which belong to the most important chemical compounds Rosarian and Rosin. The Phenolic compounds present in this plant are also very important. These include Salidroside, Flavonoids, Triterpenes, Tricins, Glycosides and Tyrosol. Rhodiola Rosea is also responsible for the energy source for brain cells by promoting ATP synthesis and re-synthesis, that which makes the brain energized by fueling the ATP into cerebral tissue. Rhodiola Rosea was widely recognized in every place of origin as nootropic herb.